Friday, November 18, 2011

Sungai <> River

  1. tali air yg semula jadi, batang air
  2. a large natural stream of fresh water flowing along a definite course, usually into the sea, being fed by tributary streams

Tuesday, June 9, 2009

Who is 'Yi-Fu Tuan' or 'Tuan Yi-Fu'?

Geographer Yi-Fu Tuan

A Biography of the Famous Chinese-American Geographer Yi-Fu Tuan

From Amanda Briney, Contributing Writer, for

Mar 13 2009

Yi-Fu Tuan is a Chinese-American geographer famous for pioneering the field of human geography and merging it with philosophy, art, psychology, and religion. This amalgamation has formed what is known as humanist geography.

Humanist geography as it is sometimes called is a branch of geography that studies how humans interact with space and their physical and social environments. It also looks at the spatial and temporal distribution of population as well as the organization of the world’s societies. Most importantly though, humanistic geography stresses people’s perceptions, creativity, personal beliefs, and experiences in developing attitudes on their environments.

In addition to his work in human geography, Yi-Fu Tuan is famous for his definitions of space and place. Today, place is defined as a particular part of space that can be occupied, unoccupied, real, or perceived (as is the case with mental maps). Space is defined as that which is occupied by an object's volume.

During the 1960s and 1970s, the idea of place in determining people's behavior was at the forefront of human geography and replaced any attention previously given to space. In his 1977 article, "Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience," Tuan argued that to define space, one must be able to move from one place to another, but in order for a place to exist, it needs a space. Thus, Tuan concluded that these two ideas are dependent upon one another and began to cement his own place in the history of geography.

Yi-Fu Tuan's Early Life

Tuan was born on December 5, 1930 in Tientsin, China. Because his father was a middle class diplomat, Tuan was able to become a member of the educated class, but he also spent many of his younger years moving from place to place within and outside of China's borders.

Tuan first entered college at the University College in London but he later went to the University of Oxford where he received his bachelor's degree in 1951. He then continued his education there and earned his master's degree in 1955. From there, Tuan moved to California and finished his education at the University of California, Berkeley.

During his time at Berkeley, Tuan became fascinated with the desert and the American Southwest -- so much so that he often camped in his car in the rural, open areas. It was here that he began to develop his ideas of the importance of place and bring philosophy and psychology into his thoughts on geography. In 1957, Tuan completed his PhD with his dissertation entitled, "The Origin of Pediments in Southeastern Arizona."

Yi-Fu Tuan's Career

After completing his PhD at Berkeley, Tuan accepted a position teaching geography at Indiana University. He then moved on to the University of New Mexico, where he frequently spent time conducting research in the desert and further developed his ideas on place. In 1964, Landscape magazine published his first major article called, "Mountains, Ruins, and the Sentiment of Melancholy," in which he examined how people view physical landscape features in culture.

In 1966, Tuan left the University of New Mexico to begin teaching at the University of Toronto where he remained until 1968. In that same year, he published another article; “The Hydrologic Cycle and the Wisdom of God,” that looked at religion and used the hydrologic cycle as evidence for religious ideas.

After two years at the University of Toronto, Tuan then moved to the University of Minnesota where he produced his most influential works on organized human geography. There, he wondered about the positive and negative aspects of human existence and why and how they existed around him. In 1974, Tuan produced his most influential work called Topophilia which looked at the love of place and people’s perceptions, attitudes, and values surrounding their environments. In 1977, he further solidified his definitions of place and space with his article, “Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience.”

That piece, combined with Topophilia then had a significant impact on Tuan’s writing. While writing Topophilia, he learned the people perceive place not only because of the physical environment but also because of fear. In 1979, this became the idea of his book, Landscapes of Fear.

Following four more years teaching at the University of Minnesota, Tuan cited a mid-life crisis and moved to the University of Wisconsin. While there, he produced several more works, among them, Dominance and Affection: The Making of Pets, in 1984 that looked at man's impacts on the natural environment by focusing on how humans are able to change it by adopting pets.

In 1987, Tuan's work was formally celebrated when he was awarded the Cullum Medal by the American Geographical Society.

Retirement and Legacy

During the late 1980s and 1990s, Tuan continued lecturing at the University of Wisconsin and wrote several more articles, further expanding his ideas in human geography. On December 12, 1997, he gave his last lecture at the university and officially retired in 1998.

Even in retirement, Tuan has remained a prominent figure in geography by pioneering human geography, a step that gave the field a more interdisciplinary feel as it is no longer simply concerned with physical geography and/or spatial science. In 1999, Tuan wrote his autobiography and more recently in 2008, he published a book called, Human Goodness. Today, Tuan continues give lectures and writes what he calls “Dear Colleague Letters.”

To view these letters and learn more about Yi-Fu Tuan's career visit


What is 'topophilia'?


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Topophilia is described in Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language as literally love of place. It is a term used to describe the strong sense of place or identity among certain peoples.

It combines the Greek word topo- or top-, meaning place, with the ending -philia, meaning love of/for.

It is generally believed that it was coined by Chinese-American geographer Yi-Fu Tuan in his 1974 book entitled Topophilia: a study of environmental perception, attitudes, and values. Tuan claims that topophilia "can be defined widely so as to include all emotional connections between physical environment and human beings." But W.H. Auden used the term already in his 1948 introduction to John Betjeman's poetry title Slick but Not Streamlined. Perhaps more germanely, it appeared in French philosopher Gaston Bachelard's The Poetics of Space, published in French in 1958.


Tuesday, May 26, 2009

Sustainable, SustainableDevelopment & Education for Sustainable Development

Yesterday we had a meeting to discuss the aspect of 'Sustainable Development for Higher Education'.

First, the terms - 'sustainabilit', 'sustainable development' and 'education for sustainable development'. What do they mean exactly? What are the Malay correspondence for them? All I can recall was Anise's suggestion - find a tight definition for both Malay and English which can be used in all disciplines. Hmmm...

Second, are the terms limited to environment, which, according to some, would correspond to 'alam sekitar'. Need to register myself in geography after this.

Third, since someone said it is difficult to get hit on the search engines, I am putting all three terms to see if this blog will get hit. According to Prof Ruslan Rainis, wordpress has a better chance than proper papers. Now let me try with blogspot. Here goes nothing... Wait, I think I'd better create twitter and do it ala Ashton Kutcher (

Whatever it is - Human must take care of Earth so that the future generation will have the opportunity to savour the beauty of all systems that make Earth.

I only wish that all wars (political and military) will end so that we can truly live in harmony and symbiotically with each other and with others in the ecosystem.

Tuesday, January 20, 2009

Bukit Larut: Alahai Kerajaan Negeri - Do not echo what the previous government had said and planned!!!

RM60m cable car for Bukit Larut planned
By : P. Chandra Sagaran

IPOH: The state government has approved in principle the construction of a RM60 million cable car system at Bukit Larut in Taiping.

The contract will go to "a company with a good track record" with the assurance that the resort's ecological settings would not be disturbed.

State Education, Local Government, Housing and Public Transport Committee chairman Nga Kor Ming said the project had the support of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Department of Environment.

A visitor will take 11 minutes to reach the 1,250m peak of the resort from the bottom of the mountain, compared with the 30-minute, 13km ride via four-wheel-drive or government Land Rover.

"The cable will stretch up between 5 and 6km and will have 26 cable cars in the first phase and 46 cars which can carry 1,000 visitors."
Construction will be done by using helicopters.

Pilling works will use the latest technology to ensure the fauna and flora are untouched.

Nga said: "The company, which has a good track record of operating the Langkawi cable car system for the past five years with a 100 per cent safety record, will make a prospective study and will take about a year to complete the project."

The hill is a haven for birds such as the rhinoceros hornbill, large moths and butterflies, beetles, monkeys and Pope's Pit Viper.

Other attractions include a playground, watch tower, suspension bridge, camp site and century-old buildings.

There is also the 90-year-old Sri Kaliamman Temple.

Formerly known as Max-well Hill, Bukit Larut is the oldest hill station in the country dating back to 1884.

On another matter, Nga said the state executive council had approved the conversion of a 5.33ha site for the new Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Poi Lam building in Seri Klebang here to replace the school in Jalan Panglima Bukit Gantang, which had become congested with 4,000 pupils.

The school was built in 1919.

The school would only pay RM1 as quit rent.

Present yesterday was the chairman of board of governors for the school, Datuk Lim Kok Cheong.


Must find the semantic properties of "an eco friendly cable car system".

Do you think Bukit Larut should be "upgraded" so that it will attract more tourists. especially foreign tourists? For example, the present type of accommodation available may not appeal to most of the foreign tourists as they are used to be pampered in more luxurious surroundings. And getting up there by Landrovers isn't everyone's cup of tea. How about an eco friendly cable car system? Tell us what you think. Use the form below and let us have an opinion. Try to back up your opinion with some reasoning or arguments :-)


Is there such a thing as "an eco friendly cable car system"??? And what's up with the people of Malaysia - the clice reason - tourist, especially foreign tourists. And are we 100% certain that "hey are used to be pampered in more luxurious surroundings"? Even if they do, why should we cater to their every need. If they want to continue living in a luxury surrounding, then they should have stayed at home or go to a 5-star-hotel. I bet that most foreign tourists would appreciate nature the way it is, not the way man made it to be... only politicians use these stupid excuses, I mean not all, but some politicians;)

Lay off Bukit Larut and her surrounding areas!!!! Ada je tangan gatal - BN ke, PKR ke...pliiiizzzz

What's up with Malaysian politicians - their hands are alwayz very itchy when it comes to hill areas.


Fomca against cable car


IPOH: The Federation of Malaysian Consumers Associations (Fomca) wants the state government to put off plans to build a cable car at Bukit Larut so as not to disturb the eco-system.

Its president, Datuk N. Marimuthu, said the proposal was first made in 1997 but was abandoned in 2007 after a memorandum was sent to then menteri besar Datuk Seri Tajol Rosli Ghazali.

"We have also confirmed that the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) does not support the project, contrary to a statement that they are for it."said.

Marimuthu also took a potshot at the DAP, saying that when the party was in the opposition in the state, they had supported Fomca in its bid to stop any development at Bukit Larut.

"The hill belongs to future generations and I urge Taiping residents to protest against this ridiculous idea."
Marimuthu said there were several reasons why the project should not be implemented.

Among them is the need to protect the 21.53 square km water catchment area and the unstable slope which recorded loss of soil at 150 tonnes per hectare a year, making it unsuitable for man-made structures.

The hill had been classified as one of the "regional centres of plant diversity" under the United Nations Environment Programme but now risks losing that status.

In 1910, some 7,130ha were gazetted as forest reserves. In 1962, a further 2,747ha were gazetted as the "Larut Hills virgin jungle reserve". It was also acknowledged as a habitat for flora and fauna in 2002 by the Federal Government.

Sanitation and solid waste management projects would also force animals to leave their sanctuary, said Marimuthu.

State Education, Local Government, Housing and Public Transport Committee chairman Nga Kor Ming had said on Thursday a RM60 million project had been approved in principle.

He had said the company to be awarded the project had been told not to endanger the environment.

Construction work would be carried out using helicopters so that the flora and fauna would not be harmed.

The cable would stretch between 5km and 6km. It would have 26 to 46 cars, capable of carrying 1,000 visitors on an 11-minute trip to the top.

Formerly known as Maxwell Hill, Bukit Larut is the oldest hill station in the country, dating back to 1884.

Government four-wheel-drive vehicles now ferry visitors up a 13km road up the 1,250-metre hill.


Friday, December 26, 2008

terms: environmental discourse, environmental communication

i have to check on these later...

wacana persekitaran / alam sekitar

komunikasi persekitaran / alam sekitar

tiga pejuang melayu digantung

Sejarah yang dilupakan

Oleh Mohd Azis Ngah

Tempat tiga pejuang Melayu digantung pada pokok mempelam, Januari 1877 terbiar

SEPANJANG perjalanan dari Taiping ke Kuala Sepetang (Port Weld), yang jaraknya kira-kira 12 kilometer dari Bandar Taiping, Perak kelihatan banyak pokok besar di sepanjang jalan terutama di kawasan Matang yang mungkin usianya mencecah ratusan tahun.

Pokok besar itu dikatakan ditanam oleh penjajah Inggeris dengan tujuan tertentu, ada yang mendakwa sebagai penanda kawasan laluan, penanda pendudukan kolonial dan ada juga yang mengatakan ia satu daripada kempen alam sekitar.

Laluan darat itu sebenarnya bersebelahan landasan kereta api bersejarah antara Taiping ke Port Weld sejauh 12 kilometer (km).

Di antara puluhan pokok besar itu, ada dua batang pokok besar, setinggi kira-kira 20 meter dan mungkin usianya mencecah hampir ratusan tahun yang terletak di arah bertentangan dengan pokok yang dikatakan ditanam oleh penjajah Inggeris.

Saiz ketinggiannya jika ditebang untuk dijadikan balak, ia boleh dipotong dua balak atau tual iaitu satu tual panjangnya bersamaan dengan saiz lori balak. Ukir lilit dianggarkan lebih satu pemeluk orang dewasa.

Kakitangan Kompleks Sejarah Matang, Ahmad Khopapi menunjukkan pokok mempelam pauh sebesar dua pemeluk orang dewasa, benih pokok induk tempat tiga pejuang Melayu digantung mati.

Dua pokok mempelam pauh itu terletak di satu selekoh. Kedudukannya agak terpinggir, kawasannya tidak dijaga, dipenuhi lalang manakala sebuah rumah lama di tepinya kelihatan usang dan terbiar. Jika diteliti, kedudukannya di sebelah kanan dari arah Taiping betul-betul berdepan dengan Kompleks Sejarah Matang.

Mungkin ramai yang tidak peduli atau tidak tahu, di situlah sebenarnya British menggantung sehingga mati tiga pejuang dan pemimpin Melayu yang disabitkan kesalahan bersubahat dan membunuh Residen Perak yang pertama, James Wheeler Woodford Birch atau JWW Birch di Pasir Salak.

Dato Seri Maharaja Lela, Dato Sagor dan Pandak Indut menghembuskan nafas terakhir di tali gantung yang diikat pada pokok induk mempelam pauh berkenaan.

Ketika berlakunya pembunuhan Birch, Pandak Indut adalah orang pertama yang merejam lembing kepada residen British itu disusuli libasan lembing oleh Si Puntung. Pandak Indut atau nama sebenarnya Ngah Kamdin dan menantunya, Dato Maharaja Lela disabitkan kesalahan bersubahat dalam serangan itu.

caption image3

Pembunuhan pada 2 November 1875 itu banyak dicatatkan buku sejarah, jurnal, perbincangan tetapi yang pasti ia adalah kemuncak sejarah perjuangan Melayu menentang penjajah di Pasir Salak. Ia adalah sejarah agung yang dikenang sebagai bukti perjuangan demi cintakan bangsa, agama dan tanah air.

Kini selepas 133 tahun serangan itu berlaku, yang tinggal cuma dua batang pokok generasi baru hasil benih pokok induk, tetapi berdasarkan keadaannya sekarang, boleh dibayangkan betapa besarnya pokok berkenaan pada ketika itu.

Selain itu, kedudukannya menghadap tanah lapang juga menimbulkan tanda tanya apa motifnya hukuman gantung diadakan di situ.

Ada yang mengatakan, hanya satu tujuan iaitu supaya hukuman itu dapat disaksikan oleh penduduk kampung supaya jangan sesekali mencabar pemerintahan British serta menakutkan orang ramai untuk membuktikan kekuasaan Inggeris ke atas Tanah Melayu.

Rumah Kapten TCS Speedy yang mengetuai pasukan polis Ngah Ibrahim juga bersebelahan tempat itu, jadi memang sesuai ia dijadikan tempat menjalankan hukuman.

Pembantu Muzium, Kompleks Sejarah Matang, Ahmad Sazali Sabu, berkata berdasarkan cerita lisan yang diwarisi turun temurun, memang di situlah ketiga-tiga pejuang bangsa itu digantung, cuma pokok mempelam pauh yang asal sudah tumbang dan kini hanya tinggal dua batang pokok generasi baru.

“Kawasan itu asalnya adalah bandar lama Matang. Sebab itulah adanya balai polis dan beberapa rumah lama berdekatan pokok mempelam. Rumah lama itu adalah bekas kuarters Jabatan Kerjaya Raya (JKR) yang pernah diduduki pegawai kerajaan British dan ditutup pada awal 1960-an.

“Bersebelahan itu juga adalah bekas tapak bangunan majistret, tempat pembicaraan pesalah tetapi sudah hangus dijilat api. Rumah majistret itu pernah dijadikan lokap mengurung pesalah kes jenayah kecil seperti mencuri. Mereka ditempatkan di bawah rumah,” katanya.

Namun, agak menyedihkan kerana kawasan itu langsung tidak mempunyai papan tanda penerangan mengenai peristiwa bersejarah pernah berlaku di situ. Apa yang boleh dilihat dan dilawati cuma Kompleks Sejarah Matang, bekas Kota Ngah Ibrahim serta rumah Kapten Speedy.


Pahlawan Melayu tulen

  • Pandak Indut, Dato Maharaja Lela dan Dato Sagor digantung mati pada Januari 1877 di Matang.

  • Dato Maharaja Lela dan Pandak Indut dikebumikan di tebing Sungai Larut.

  • Berlaku hakisan tebing menyebabkan kedua-dua kubur itu musnah.

  • Kubur Pandak Indut, dibina semula di satu kawasan berhampiran Masjid Tengku Menteri, Matang, kira-kira 20 minit perjalanan dari kawasan pokok mempelam berkenaan.

    Dato Maharaja Lela

  • Dato Seri Maharaja Lela adalah gelaran berasal dari Melaka.

  • Di Perak, beliau adalah Ketua Orang Besar Delapan dan berkuasa menghukum pesalah serta bertanggungjawab mempertahankan raja.

  • Mempunyai sumber penguasaan cukai wilayah penguasaannya di Pasir Salak hingga ke Sungai Dedap.

  • Frank Swettenham dalam bukunya ‘Stories and Sketched’ mencatatkan Maharaja Lela seorang yang gagah dan berkedudukan tinggi.

  • Berkedudukan tempat ketujuh dalam senarai kekananan daripada kedudukan Sultan Abdullah

  • Mempunyai anak bernama Rasiah

  • Dihukum mati kerana terbabit dalam pembunuhan Birch.

    Pandak Indut

  • Bapa mentua kepada Dato Maharaja Lela

  • Pahlawan Melayu aktif menentang British

  • Menerima pedang daripada Dato Maharaja Lela untuk membunuh Birch yang mengarahkan menampal surat pengumuman di Pasir Salak.

  • Beliau adalah orang pertama mengoyak surat ditampal Mat Arshad dan menikam suruhan Inggeris itu dengan lembing.

  • Ditangkap di Kota Lama pada Julai 1876 atas tuduhan membunuh Birch.

    Dato Sagor

  • Nama panggilan kepada Ngah Kamdin yang bergelar Datuk Seri Agar Diraja, Orang Besar Delapan, Perak

  • Diputerakan di Kampung Gajah tetapi berhijrah ke Larut pada usia muda mengusahakan lombong bersama Che Ngah Ibrahim.

  • Mempunyai 9 anak iaitu, Long Mabu, Alang Siap, Uda Bidah, Itam Jailah, Anjang Abdullah, Teh Nasa, Mat Dagang, Kulob Satar dan Alang Ismail.

  • Keturunan Teh Nasa paling menonjol, anak keduanya melahirkan Hamzah, Ngah Mutalib, Hajjah Rahmah dan Mohd Abas.

  • Mohd Abas pernah menyandang jawatan sebagai Ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri (Adun) selama lima penggal.

  • Anak saudaranya, Tan Sri Ramli Ngah Mutalib adalah bekas Menteri Besar Perak.

    Info pembunuhan Birch

  • Raja Abdullah meminta sokongan British membolehkan dirinya merebut takhta menjadi sultan.

  • Perjanjian Pangkor dimeterai dengan British pada 20 Januari 1874 mengiktiraf Raja Abdullah menjadi Sultan Perak manakala sultan sedia ada iaitu Sultan Ismail diturunkan daripada takhta.

  • JWW Birch dilantik sebagai residen pertama di Perak.

  • Memperkenalkan pelbagai peraturan baru menekan pembesar serta penduduk termasuk cukai tinggi.

  • Sultan Abdullah dipaksa menandatangani surat memberi hak kepada British memerintah Perak dengan ugutan akan dilucutkan takhta.

  • Baginda bermesyuarat dengan pembesar negeri di Durian Sebatang pada 21 Julai 1875. Usul membunuh Birch dikemukakan dengan pelbagai cadangan antaranya meracun, sihir dan menikamnya.

  • Sultan Abdullah terpaksa bersetuju menyerahkan Perak diperintah British pada 2 Oktober 1875.

  • Pada 15 Oktober 1875, Gabenor Negeri-negeri Selat iaitu Sir William Jervois mengumumkan Perak akan diletakkan di bawah pentadbiran British diketuai seorang pesuruhjaya.

  • Surat pengisytiharan ditampal di seluruh Perak. Mulanya ditampal di kawasan kediaman Birch di Bandar Baharu dengan diikuti istiadat tembakan meriam 21 das sebelum ditampal di tempat lain.

  • Datuk Maharaja Lela mengarahkan pengikutnya membina kubu di Pasir Salak kerana yakin Birch akan datang ke kawasannya untuk menampalkan surat pengumuman.

  • Birch tiba di Pasir Salak menggunakan rumah rakit dan perahu pada malam 1 November 1875. Esoknya, jurubahasa Birch, Mat Arshad diarah ke rumah Datuk Maharaja Lela meminta supaya menghadap Birch.

  • Mat Arshad dan pengikutnya dilarang menampal surat cukai tetapi tetap berdegil menyebabkan penduduk berang dan mengoyak surat.

  • Pandak Indut yang tercabar dengan tindakan Mat Ashad menikam suruhan Inggeris dan tindakan itu seolah-olah satu isyarat supaya orang Melayu bertindak.

  • Penduduk Pasir Salak mengamuk dan menyerbu ke rumah rakit Birch sambil merejam lembing.

  • Askar pengawal Birch ketakutan dan melarikan diri meninggalkan rumah rakit itu tanpa pengawal meninggalkan Birch yang sedang mandi.

  • Rejaman lembing penduduk menembusi rumah rakit itu seterusnya menusuk jasad Birch dan beliau cuba menyelamatkan diri dengan terjun ke dalam sungai.

  • Ketika timbul tercungap-cungap di permukaan air, Si Puntung, pengikut Datuk Maharajalela menetak kepala lelaki asing itu menggunakan pedang

  • source:

    Ngah Ibrahim

    Ngah Ibrahim pejuang pemikir Melayu

    Oleh Mohd Azis Ngah

    Ngah Ibrahim

    PENJAJAH Inggeris cuba mengaitkan Ngah Ibrahim Long Jaafar (1836-1895) dengan kematian JWW Birch tetapi tiada bukti kukuh menyebabkan mereka menggunakan muslihat dan menahan pejuang kemerdekaan terawal, intelektual, pemikir dan berwawasan jauh dalam membangunkan ekonomi bangsa Melayu itu di Singapura.

    Ngah Ibrahim akhirnya dijatuhkan hukuman dibuang ke Pulau Seychelles dan dipindahkan ke Sarawak sebelum kembali ke Singapura dan meninggal dunia pada 4 Februari 1895. Jenazahnya dikebumikan di tanah perkuburan Al Junid, Singapura sebelum dibawa pulang ke halamannya pada 2006.

    Perbincangan mengenai Ngah Ibrahim sebagai seorang daripada pahlawan serta jutawan Melayu terkenal pada abad ke-19 di Tanah Melayu tidak perlu dipertikaikan.

    Dia orang yang bertanggungjawab membina Kota Ngah Ibrahim, yang kini berusia 150 tahun yang dijadikan pusat pentadbiran bersilih ganti diletakkan di bawah pemerintahan British, Jepun hinggalah akhirnya diserahkan kepada Jabatan Muzium dan Antikuiti pada 1985 untuk dijadikan Kompleks Sejarah Matang.

    Kawasan kota itu dibina menggunakan batu bata yang dicampur simen lama dikenali Lime Motar dan mempunyai menara kawalan utara dan selatan, pelabuhan Melawati, kubur, tugu peringatan kemasukan tentera Jepun.

    Bahkan, tembok yang runtuh akibat rempuhan pesawat Jepun yang terhempas di situ ketika Perang Dunia Kedua dikekalkan sebagai bahan sejarah. Pada tembok itu terdapat satu lubang kecil pada jarak setiap lima kaki dipercayai bagi tujuan pertahanan.

    Kota Ngah Ibrahim yang dijadikan Kompleks Sejarah Matang.

    Ini kerana, Ngah Ibrahim pernah melantik Kapten Speedy mengetuai pasukan polis mengawal kubu berkenaan terdiri daripada orang Melayu dan tentera Gurkha.

    Di satu sudut berhampiran menara selatan, terdapat satu perigi lama yang digali semula oleh arkeologi dan hasilnya membuktikan seni bina yang menarik. Susunan bata diletak dengan tiga corak iaitu melintang, menegak dan bentuk V atau tulang belut.

    Airnya masih banyak dan jernih, tetapi pengunjung tidak dibenarkan memijak batu bata di situ bagi mengelakkan runtuhan.

    Ahmad Sazali berkata, kubu itu pada asalnya terletak berhampiran sungai tetapi kini sungai itu menjadi sempit dan langsung tidak digunakan.

    Lakaran Kota Ngah Ibrahim di era kegemilangan pemerintahan yang turut menempatkan pelabuhan.

    “Ngah Ibrahim mempunyai empat kapal iaitu dua kapal layar dinamakan Bahtera Bayu dan Indera Bayu yang prestasinya lebih hebat daripada Kapal Pluto yang menjadi lokasi Perjanjian Pangkor pada 1874 serta serta dua kapal stim,” katanya.

    Di dalam kompleks dua tingkat itu juga mengandungi pelbagai artifak sejarah termasuk tinggalan aktiviti perlombongan, sistem pemerintahan, mahkamah, senjata dan agak menarik ialah replika Si Larut, iaitu gajah milik Long Jaafar yang dikatakan menemui bijih timah ketika berkubang di Larut.

    Kota Ngah Ibrahim jadi kompleks sejarah

    KOMPLEKS sejarah Matang, Perak yang terletak di Matang (dulu dikenali sebagai Permatang) di Mukim Bukit Gantang, Perak dibina oleh Ngah Ibrahim yang bergelar Orang Kaya Menteri Paduka Tuan.

    Beliau adalah anak kepada Che Long Jaafar, iaitu orang Melayu pertama yang membuka perusahaan lombong bijih timah di Larut, Matang dan Selama pada 1840.

    Kompleks ini adalah sebuah bangunan yang dijadikan rumah, kota dan pusat pentadbiran Larut dan ditempatkan di kawasan seluas 0.8094 hektar. Bangunan ini dibina hanya menggunakan bahan daripada batu bata saja.

    Selepas Ngah Ibrahim meninggal dunia di Singapura pada 4 Februari 1895, kota ini diletakkan di bawah pengawasan Inggeris sehinggalah ia dijadikan Maktab Perguruan Melayu Matang pada 1913 hingga 1922.

    Selepas itu, ia dijadikan sebagai Sekolah Melayu pada 1923 hingga 1941. Semasa pendudukan Jepun di Tanah Melayu (1942 hingga 1945), ia berperanan sebagai markas tentera Jepun. Apabila Jepun menyerah kalah dan berakhirnya Perang Dunia Kedua pada 1946, rumah itu dijadikan semula sebagai Sekolah Melayu (1946 hingga 1983).

    Kota ini dijadikan Kompleks Sejarah Matang hingga sekarang mulai 1985 selepas ia diserahkan kepada Jabatan Muzium dan Antikuiti.

    Koleksi dan galeri:

  • Terdiri daripada semua jenis artifak berkaitan kronologi penubuhan kompleks.

    Pameran tetap:

  • Kronologi penubuhan bangunan

  • Penggunaan bangunan bermula keluarga Che Long Jaafar, Ngah Ibrahim, pemerintahan Inggeris, Pendudukan Jepun, Maktab Latihan Perguruan Melayu Matang dan Sekolah Melayu

    Hari dan masa lawatan:

  • Setiap hari bermula jam 9 pagi hingga 5 petang (kecuali Hari Raya Aidilfitri dan Aidiladha)


  • Percuma

    Tempat menarik berhampiran:

  • Hutan Paya Bakau Matang

  • Mahkamah Pertama Perak

  • Makam Dato; Sagor

  • Masjid Tengku Menteri


  • Terletak di Matang, Mukim Bukit Gantang, daerah Taiping, Perak

  • Kira-kira 30 minit perjalanan dari Bandar Taiping

  • Kira-kira 8 kilometer dari Bandar Taiping.

    Biodata Ngah Ibrahim:

  • Dilahirkan pada 1836 di Bukit Gantang, Perak dan kawasan kelahirannya adalah daerah pemerintahan bapanya, Long Jaafar pada zaman kegemilangannya sehingga pembinaan Kota Long Jaafar.

  • Ngah Ibrahim adalah anak hasil perkahwinan Long Jaafar Datuk Paduka Setia Long Abdul Latif dengan Cik Ngah Pura Datuk Panglima Bukit Gantang Seri Amar Diraja Alang Alaiddin.

  • Long Jaafar adalah pengusaha bijih timah terkenal bermula pada 1840. Beliau juga pengusaha ladang tebu di Kerian dan Bagan Tiang serta pengusaha ladang kopi di Assam Kumbang, Taiping.
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    makalah talian / online article

    Environmental Education Across
    Cultures: Beyond the Discourse of
    Shallow Environmentalism
    Arran Stibbe
    Centre for Human Ecology, Edinburgh, UK

    Environmental Discourses ppt by Dr. Karey Harrison (USQ Australia)

    Popular science concepts and their use in creative metaphors
    in media discourse1
    Andreas Musolff, University of Durham (

    environmental discourse analysis

    environmental discourse

    environmental simulators

    global common institute

    real climate

    water alaska

    anti lomborg

    lomborg's webpage

    Thursday, December 18, 2008

    Taiping Lake Garden II

    toponym vs place name

    In the six Versions of the Sya’ir Awang Simawn, there are many place names and
    toponyms. By ‘place name’ is meant the linguistic label used to designate some particular point
    in the landscape. By ‘toponym’ is meant the linguistic label composed of a ‘specifier’ plus a
    place name (TOPONYM = SPECIFIER + PLACE_NAME). A specifier is one, of a limited
    number in a set of terms, which labels a characteristic feature of a landscape, seascape, or
    airscape, which—when combined with a place name—designates some particular spot in a
    landscape, seascape or airscape. A place name can be considered to be a toponym with a zerospecifier. Thus, all place names are toponyms, but the reverse is not true. Some examples of
    toponyms, utilizing the place name brunay (i.e.,) are:

    specifier + place_name ‘meaning’
    Ø + Barunay ‘Brunei’
    bandar + Barunay ‘the city of Brunei’
    kwala + Barunay ‘the mouth of the Brunei River’
    nagri + Barunay ‘the country of Brunei’
    pulaw + Barunay 'the “island” of Brunei’
    sungay + Barunay ‘ ‘the Brunei River’
    Table 3. Toponyms Utilizing the Place Name Barunay.


    Assessing the Epic Status of the Brunei Malay Sya’ir Awang Simawn: Place Names and Toponyms
    Allen R. Maxwell
    The University of Alabama


    The Toponymy Interest Group, referred to as TIG, is an arm of the American Name Society created to promote the collection, study, and dissemination of placename information and methods.

    naming bardi places (claire bowern)

    OLDT definition

    american heritage definition

    merriam webster definition

    encylopedia britannica online definition

    toponymy course e at universiteit utrecht

    msn encarta definition

    stop @ pg8 yahoo search on toponym

    language death

    "When you lose a language, you lose a culture, intellectual wealth, a work
    of art. It's like dropping a bomb on a museum, the Louvre."
    Comment by the late Kenneth Hale cited in The Economist (November 3, 2001).